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Informations about State(Bihar) of India

Bihar lies in the eastern part of India; it is surrounded by three other states. Patna is the capital city of Bihar which was also known as Pataliputra in the ancient times. Generally Hindi and Urdu languages are spoken in this state. Other important cities of Bihar are Gaya, Muzaffarpur, Dharbhanga etc. Patna is a very old Indian city and is related with many historical events while Gaya is said to be the sacred place where Lord Buddha attained divine power. The state of Bihar is rich in natural resources and minerals which are required to make important metals. Patna has many national and state level institutions and is also the chief commercial city.

Bihar : Quick Look:

Capital: Patna
Established: 1912 (as Bihar)
Largest city: Patna
Districts: 38 total
Government Body: Government of India, Government of Bihar
Legislature: Bicameral (243 + 75 seats)
Parliamentary constituency: Bihar
High Court: Patna High Court
Region Total: 94,163 km2 (36,356.5 sq mi)
Region rank: 12th
Population Density: 1,102.4/km2 (2,855.2/sq mi)
Time zone: IST (UTC+05:30)
ISO 3166 code: IN-BR
Vehicle registration: BR
HDI rank: 28th (2005)
Literacy: 63.82% (28th)
- 73.4% (male)
- 53.3% (female)
Region: Angika Region, Bhojpuri Region, Magadh Region, Mithila RegionDivision: Patna, Tirhut, Saran, Darbhanga, Kosi, Purnia, Bhagalpur, Munger, Magadha
Official Website: http://www.gov.bih.nic.in
Official languages: Hindi, Urdu, Maithili, Magahi

Seal of Bihar State
Seal of Bihar State

The present geographical frontiers of Bihar state was carved from the Buddhist Vihara, which was the abode for Buddhist Monks of ancient periods. The place was initially named as Vihara, following this abode of the Buddhist Monks, and as time passed by, the name was distorted to "Bihar" the word is thus originated from Sanskrit and Pali languages. The State is thus predisposed by Budhist civilization, Ancient Pali civilization and also the civilization of Nepal to a large extent.

The credentials of Bihar can be listed as:

  1. The State is situated of Eastern India and has Bangladesh and Nepal as its borders which makes the State a prominent region of terms of security.
  2. Third leading state of terms of size at 38,202 sq mi (94,163 sq km)
  3. Third leading by population
  4. Majority live of rural villages.
  5. Close to 58% of Bihari population is below 25 years of age which makes Bihar to rank first of such proportion.
  6. forest area of 6,764.14 km2, which is 6.8% of its geographical area
  7. the State enjoyed the status of City capital for many centuries and many rulers of India.


Division Headquarters
Purnia Purnia
Magadh Gaya
Bhagalpur Bhagalpur
Darbhanga Darbhanga
Patna Patna
Tirhut Muzaffarpur
Saran Chapra
Munger Munger
Kosi Saharsa

The boundaries of Bihar are: West: Uttar Pradesh; East : West Bengal; North: Nepal and South: Jharkhand. The river Ganges flows midway from beginning to end the State dividing it into two parts vertically. People here speak Hindi and Urdu apart from confined languages of Angika, Bhojpuri, Magadhi, Maithili and Bajjika. Many languages spoken here do not have script and are not recognized by the Indian Government as the National Languages.

History of Bihar:

The history and glory of Bihar can be identified since the Maurya Empire and Gupta Dynasty. Patna, called as Patliputra that time, was prominent centre for education and civilization. Even Buddhism, the world's widely adhered religion found its roots of Bihar. Also Nalanda the educational institution was established n Bihar some 15 centuries ago. Magadha is the city from where the supreme power emanated of the form of Maurya Empire and then the state became the centre for power, education and religion. Under the Mauryan and Gupta rule, Magadha enjoyed the status of unifying large areas of South East Asia under central rule for over 1000 years. The very ancient civilistion, politics, power, military, economics and other writings that forms base of Indian History started of Magadha. Bihari language also finds its origin of the Indian epics during those classical periods.

Government and administration:

The State is headed by a Governor as per the Constitution of India and he is a nominee of the First Citizen of India, the President. The executive and managerial powers are vested of the Chief Minister of the State who is the representative of the Political party that has highest number of favouring votes of the State Assembly either singly or from beginning to end Coalition.

The bureaucratic power vests of the Chief Secretary. He is assisted by officials at different hierarchical levels from the IAS (Indian Administrative Service), IPS Indian Police Service) and other various State Civil Services of the State.  The Chief Justice of the High Court heads the judicial wing of the State and the High Court is of function since 1916. Patna is retained as the State capital following the Ancient rule of the Mauryans/ Gupta Dynasty. The name is however changed from Patliputra to Patna.

Internally, the Bihar State is categorized as Districts and divisions. For administrative convenience there are 38 Districts and 9 divisions. The districts include Kosi, Bhagalpur, Saran, Darbhanga and others.

Licchavi, the most ancient Republics of the world has its seeds of Bihar, even before 599 BC (birth of Mahavira). During the Gupta Period, the golden period of Indian Histroy, Magadha enjoyed special attention as learning centre for civilization and civilization.

Thereafter, the Pali's made Magadha as their capital city Post that, Bihar was not so well known until the Suri's dynasty emerged during the Islamic period of 1540. Post Suri's dynasty of 1556, Bihar again gained prominence as the centre to stage Presidency elections of 1750's till the first Revolt of 1857-58. Thereafter, of 1935, Bihar was divided as Province of British India. And post Independence of 1947, Bihar got the status of a separate State of Indian Union.

Geography and climate:

The fertility of Bihar plains is mainly due to the flooding of Ganges River and its Northern tributaries of Gandak and Koshi. Other tributaries include Son River, Budhi Gandak, Chandan, Orhani and Falgu. These tributaries originate of Himalayas of Nepal and Bhagmati is another river that emanates from Kathmandu. These continuously flow and flood Bihar State.

The geographical stretch of Bihar is 94,163 sq kms. As mentioned earlier, the Ganges River divides the State into two equal parts vertically, from west to East. Bihar starts at the foothill of Himaayas, but still the Himalayan range enter the Nepal and north of Bihar. This especially influences the climate, landforms, water and civilization of Bihar to a large extent. The Chota Nagpur Plateau was a part of Bihar but now is a part of Jharkhand since 2000. Rajgir Hills and similar smaller hills are also found of and more or less Bihar.

The climate of Bihar is widely distinguished especially due to the presence of rivers and mountains surrounding the State. The lowest temperature recorded is 4-10 °C (39-50 °F) and highest are 35-40 °C (95-104 °F).
December-January are winter seasons, Monsoon starts of June and sets of August, Rainy season is September. The climate is pleasant during the months of October, November, February, and March.

Google Map : Details Of India | Maps Of Bihar

Male Population : 44501442
Female Population : 40830998
Total Population : 85332440
Details of Geographical Information About Bihar
State Name: Bihar
Country: India
Country ISO code: IN
Districts in Bihar, India
Alphabetical list of districts of Bihar
List of Related Utilities of Bihar on Detailsofindia.com